Terbaru, Pembangkit Listrik Biomassa Sudah Ada di Indonesia

Pembangkit listrik Biomassa akan dibahas di artikel ini,

Berbicara tentang listrik di Indonesia, banyak yang beranggapan bahwa distribusi listrik belum merata. Adanya beberapa pihak yang belum merasakan listrik dengan leluasa menjadi latar belakang pernyataan ini. Harus diakui, beberapa daerah di Indonesia masih kesulitan listrik. Sementara, di bagian daerah lain justru terlihat seperti tidak memanfaatkan listrik dengan bijak. Namun, harapan akan selalu ada. Munculnya pembangkit listrik biomassa menjadi harapan baru untuk listrik merata di Indonesia.

 

Pembangkit listrik biomassa mungkin masih terdengar asing dan tidak setenar pembangkit listrik lain di telinga. Biomassa sendiri adalah bahan bakar yang berasal dari bahan organik dan terbarukan yang bisa menciptakan listrik atau bentuk energi lain. Umumnya biomassa terbentuk dari bahan-bahan seperti potongan kayu, tanaman, pupuk, dan yang menarik, limbah pun bisa berfungsi sebagai bahan bakar biomassa.­­

Mengapa biomassa disebut sebagai sumber bahan bakar terbarukan? Ada dua alasan, pertama karena sisa limbah akan terus ada (bisa dalam bentuk kayu bekas hingga residu pabrik yang tidak akan ada habisnya) kedua, hutan yang dikelola dengan baik akan menghasilkan banyak pohon. Artinya akan ada banyak tanaman serta sisa biologis dari tanaman tersebut. Semakin banyak tanaman, semakin banyak sumber bahan bakar yang bisa dimanfaatkan. Hal ini rupanya dimanfaatkan dengan baik oleh pemerintah.

Di Indonesia sendiri, sudah ada satu pembangkit listrik biomassa yang berdiri. Pembangkit listrik biomassa di Indonesia terletak di wilayah Kalimantan Barat. hal ini sejalan dengan program dari pemerintah untuk meningkatkan rasio elektrifikasi yang berbasis energi terbarukan. Harapannya, suplai listrik di daerah Kalimantan akan membaik dan tidak mengalami gangguan serta halangan berarti.

Cara kerja pembangkit listrik tenaga biomassa sendiri cukup sederhana. Limbah kayu atau limbah lain dibakar hingga menghasilkan uap yang nantinya akan menjalankan turbin dan menghasilkan listrik, baik untuk industri atau rumah. Namun, jika menggunakan boiler, yang digunakan adalah boiler yang paling umum yaitu boiler air panas dan ketel uap. Penggunaannya pun sama seperti batu bara, gas alam dan minyak. Bahan bakar disimpan di bunker untuk transportasi ke boiler. Selanjutnya, air dipanaskan hingga suhu tinggi di bawah tekanan. Uap dari boiler dihubungkan ke generator, dan yang sudah melewati turbin aan memanaskan air pemanas distrik dan nantinya dialirkan melalui pipa jaringan district heating.

Untuk komponen pembangkit listrik tenaga biomassa sendiri ada tiga jenis. Berikut ketiganya:

  • Hasil hutan. Seperti sudah disinggung di atas, semakin sehat sebuah hutan semakin besar hasil hutan yang bisa dimanfaatkan. Hasil hutan menjadi bahan terbesar yang digunakan dalam tenaga biomassa. Selain cocok untuk ekspor, hasil hutan juga mudah untuk transportasi
  • Tanaman energi. Meski tidak digunakan dalam skala besar untuk produksi listrik atau panas, tanaman energi mampu memenuhi permintaan biomassa yang terus meningkat dari waktu ke waktu. Beberapa tanaman herba (berumput) juga terbukti bisa diubah menjadi tenaga biomassa. Namun, masih perlu dikaji ulang apakah tanaman energi ini dikelola secara berkelanjutan
  • Limbah dan residu. Siapa sangka, limbah yang jadi musuh masyarakat ternyata juga punya nilai positif. Pupuk kandang, limbah rumah tangga dan residu tanaman limbah bisa diolah untuk biogas. Pun lumpur dan limbah yang terdegradasi juga bisa dimanfaatkan untuk hal serupa

Pembangkit listrik tenaga biomassa (PLTB) di Indonesia yang berbasis renewable energy memang sudah ada di Kalimantan Barat sejak tahun lalu. PLTBm di Indonesia yang berbahan bakar cangkang kelapa sawit ini akan menyuplai 10 Megawatt listrik di daerah Kalselteng. Dari pihak pemerintah sendiri menganggap ini adalah bentuk nyata bantuan dan dukungan memanfaatkan potensi enerfi baru dan terbarukan.

Selain itu, pemanfaatan energi terbarukan yang dinilai ramah lingkunagan bisa digunakan di daerah terpencil dan terluar sekalipun. Semoga ini merupakan salah satu solusi bagi daerah di Indonesia yang masih kekurangan listrik hingga sekarang.

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