Tahap Pembuatan Biogas Dari Limbah Kelapa Sawit

Sebelum membahas proses pembuatan biogas limbah pabrik kelapa sawit, sebaiknya kenali terlebih dahulu komponen utama yang di hasilkan oleh biogas tersebut. Komponen tersebut dikenal dengan struktur CH4, lebih tepatnya yaitu gas metana. Gas metana merupakan hasil pengolahan limbah yang kemudian dikenal juga menghasilkan biogas dari limbah cair kelapa sawit tersebut. Biogas merupakan bentuk gas metan sawit yang penggunaannya tidak akan menimbulkan pencemaran di lingkungan sekitar. Selain itu, manfaat limbah kelapa sawitpun dinyatakan sebagai pembangkt tenaga listrik.

 

Pada pembuatan biogas tersebut pabrik kelapa sawit, atau seringkali disebut juga dengan pabrik biogas membutuhkan urutan cara membuat biogas tersebut. Diantaranya pembuatan kolam, dengan ukuran cukup besar atau dalam beberapa hektar. Untuk informasi lebih dalam mengenai tahap pembuatan biogas, maka simaklah pembahasan singkat dibawah ini yang didapatkan dari beberapa sumber jurnal biogas dari limbah kelapa sawit yang terpercaya.

Cara Membuat Biogas Dari Limbah Kelapa Sawit

Bahan pembuatan biogas dari limbah sawit ini merupakan bagian substrat dari inoculum. Subtrat itu terdiri dari beberapa bagian, diantaranya yaitu bagian Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit / seringkali disingkat juga dengan TKKS, lalu ada juga pericarp sawit serta lumpr LPKS. Sementara itu, bahan inoculum sendiri, sebaiknya diambil dari kombinasi antara tanaman eceng gondok dan kotoran ternak.

Sesudah menyiapkan beberapa bahan tersebut, maka substrat serta bagian inoculum tersebut dicampurkan menjadi satu. Lalu bahan itu difermentasikan dengan hitungan waktu sepuluh hari. Proses fermentasu tersebut dilakukan untuk membuat biogas, karena proses cara membuat biogas dari limbah kelapa sawit tersebut pada dasarnya harus melalui kondisi anaerob dahulu.

Persiapan Peralatan Pembuatan Biogas Dari Limbah Kelapa Sawit

Selain memerlukan beberapa bentuk bahan diatas, proses pembuatan biogas tersebut memerlukan beberapa alat dalam proses pembuatannya. Beberapa jenis peralatan yang dapat mendukung diantaranya yaitu waterbath yang memiliki peran sebagai incubator, bioreaktir, gas holder, gelas ukur, serta selang plastic. Sesudah biogas itu dihasilkan, maka akan mengalami juga tahap pengujian dahulu. Hal tersebut dilakukan untuk mengetahui kualitas biogas, dengan cara mengecek kandungan yang terdapat pada limbah sawit yang digunakannya, sehingga akan menghasilkan biogas limbah sawit yang berkualitas.

Pengujian biogas dilakukan dengan beberapa tahap analisis, yang dimulai dari analisis COD yang memiliki peran untuk menentukan kualitas limbah digunakan sebagai biogas tersebut. Lalu ada juga analisis kadar air yang terdapat pada kandungannya, analisis nitrogen, analisis selulosa, analisis organic, analisis lignin, analisis padatan volatif serta analisis hemiselulosa sebagai analisis terakhir yang dilakukannya. Pembuatan biogas dari limbah kelapa sawit dilakukan dengan beberapa tahapan yang berbeda, diantaranya yaitu :

Tahap pertama

Pada tahap pertama ini bakteri tersebut dibiarkan untuk dapat melakukan hidrolisis polimer yaitu dengan memiliki bantuan dari enzim selulase dilakukan terhadap bagian pollimer karbohidtrat. Sementara untuk enzim lipase dapat membantu hidrolisis terhadap bagian lemak, sedang untuk hidrolisis protein justru dilakukan enzim protease, yang akhirnya akan menghasilkan bentuk senyawa terlarut.

Tahap kedua

Tahap yang satu ini senyawa terlarut tersebut dilakukan perombakan lagi sehingga dapat menghasilkan bagian gas hydrogen, alkohol, karbondioksida, asam laktat, senyawa asetat serta bentuk senyawa lainnya yang mempunyai ukuran rantai pendek. Tahap ini dikenal juga dengan sebutan asidogenesis yaitu prosesnya dilakukan dengan mendapatkan bantuan dari bakteri asam.

Tahap ketiga

Tahapan ini, proses pembuatan biogas yang dilakukan dengan bantuan dari bakteri asetat, gas karbondioksida, serta gas hydrogen. Tahap yang satu ini masih sama dengan tahap yang kedua disebut dengan tahap asidogenesis.

Tahap keempat

Pada umumnya kegiatan produksi biogas limbah cair kelapa sawit dilakukan oleh pabrik akan menghasilkan gas metana dari limbah kelapa sawit. Tetapi pada tahapan pembuatan keempat serta dilakukan terhadap limbah kelapa sawit itu yaitu proses pada saat bagian asetat, lalu karbondioksida serta gas hydrogen dihasilkan dari tahap yang ketiga tadi lalu dilaukan perombakan lagi. Perombakan tersebut dilakukan menggunakan bakteri metana, sehingga akhirnya bisa menghasilkan gas metana serta gas karbondioksida.

Penelitian Limbah Kelapa Sawit

Tentunya tidaklah heran apabila pabrik kelapa sawit menghasilkan limbah cukup banyak terutama limbah cair. Rata-rata pabrik sawit ini bisa menghasilkan limbah cair 420 m3 per hari. Limbah cair sawit/palm Oil Mill Effluent memiliki kandungan senyawa glukosa, protein serta karbohidrat memiliki ikatan atom C, jika diolah secara baik maka bisa menghasilkan biogas dari limbah pabrik kelapa sawit yang dapat digunakan untuk menghasilkan energy.

Biasanya hanya di olah supaya bisa di buang berdasarkan dengan standar buku mutu lingkungan yang telah di tetapkan. Sekarang ini manusia membutuhkan perbaharuan energy sbagai pengganti energi yang tidak terbaharui misalnya bahan bakar minyak yang kini persediaannya semakin berkurang. Maka itu perlu terdapat sumber energy alternative sehingga dapat memenuhi kebutuhan energy.

Naiknya gas elpiji membuat kita semua tersadar bahwa bahan bakar ditambang dari perut bumi lambat laun akan habis. Tersedianya bahan bakar gas ini semakin menipis serta harganya juga akan semakin membumbung tinggi. Sudah saatnya untuk beralih terhadap sumber energy yang bisa diperbaharui. Salah satunya yaitu energy dari limbah pabrik sawit. Energi terbuat dari bahan tambag minyak bumi serta gas bumi diperkirakan lama-lama akan habis dalam waktu relative singkat. Mau tidak mau maka Indonesia harus secepatnya untuk mencari sumber energy yang bisa diperbaharui untuk dapat memenuhi kebutuhan energy masa depan.

Penelitian yang satu ini penting sekali untuk dilakukan karena POME adalah sumber energi sangat potensial dapat menggantikan bahan bakar minyak, hanya harus mencari kondisi ideal pada proses fermentasi sehingga menjadi biogas terbaik. Penelitian ini memiliki tujuan untuk dapat mengetahui jumlah biogas yang bisa dihasilkan melewati proses fermentasi POME serta mengetahui HRT terbaik untuk dapat menghasilkan biogas yang berkualitas, terbaik, dan terbanyak.

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