Biogas dan Biomassa, Apakah Keduanya Berbeda Atau Justru Sama?

Sudah saatnya kita berhenti menutup mata. Harus disadari bahwa energi dari minyak bumi dan batu bara secara besar-besaran akan membuat pemanasan global terjadi. Efek rumah kaca jadi imbasnya dan sudah bisa kita rasakan bersama. Kini, bukan hanya Indonesia namun sudah ada banyak Negara yang mulai beralih ke energi terbarukan (renewable energy). Biomassa menjadi sebuah nama yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari renewable energy, karena menjadi contoh nyata yang bisa kita jumpai di kehidupan sehari-hari.

 

Cara menghasilkan energi biomassa adalah dengan mengkonversi bahan biologis seperti tanaman, hewan, dan mikroorganisme. Biomassa pertama berasal dari tumbuh-tumbuhan yang bisa memberikan energi dalam jumlah besar untuk banyak keperluan. Selain itu juga ada kesinambungan yang terjadi antara hewan, tumbuhan dan mikroorganisme. Contohnya adalah saat hewan tidak mengkonsumsi tumbuhan, maka tumbuhan akan dipecah oleh mikroorganisme dan melepas karbon dioksida kembali ke atmosfer.

Sedangkan biogas adalah gas yang dihasilkan dari fermentasi anaerobik yang diambil dari bahan organik. Bahan-bahan ini terdiri dari kotoran hewan dan manusia yang termasuk bahan dasar. Komposisinya pun lebih bervariasi. Biomassa diperoleh dari sumber energi yang bisa diproduksi lagi, seperti kayu dan limbahnya. Singkatnya, semakin banyak pohon-pohon maka semakin banyak sumber energi yang dihasilkan. Berikut beberapa sumber energi biogas yang bisa ditemukan dengan mudah.

  • Tanaman energi. Beberapa tanaman sumber energi adalah jagung, kedelai, dan gandum. Tanaman ini diproduksi dalam skala besar dan akan menghasilkan butanol, etanol, metanol, biodiesel dan propanol
  • Limbah pertanian. Bentuk dari limbah pertanian ini adalah jerami, ampas tebu, serta kotoran ternak dan unggas

Dari penjabaran di atas kita dapat menarik kesimpulan bahwa ada persamaan biogas dan biomassa yang dapat kita temui. Keduanya menggunakan tanaman sebagai sumber energi dan kini mulai menjadi harapan hidup orang banyak. Baik biogas maupun biomassa pun tidak membahayakan lingkungan sekitar dan banyak disebut cukup ramah lingkungan, sehingga tidak heran membuat banyak orang tertarik untuk berpindah dan memanfaatkan keduanya.

Indonesia memiliki potensi sumber daya biomassa dan limbah yang besar. Jika potensi ini dimanfaatkan dengan maksimal, maka bukan tidak mungkin generasi mendatang akan merasakan sisi baiknya. Serta, Indonesia lebih mandiri dan hebat dari kacamata sumber energi dan bahan kimia.

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