Beragam Jenis Turbin Uap Pabrik Sawit, Sudah Tahu?

Sama seperti mesin lain yang ada di pabrik kelapa sawit, turbin uap pabrik sawit juga memiliki beragam jenis. Pembagiannya pun sudah ditentukan berdasarkan beberapa hal. Pertanyaannya, apakah semua jenis turbin uap pada pabrik kelapa sawit wajib dimiliki oleh pemilik pabrik? Tentu sajatidak.Anda bisa menyesuaikan sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan juga sesuai budget, mengingat mesin satu ini harganya bisa mencapai ratusan hingga milyaran rupiah.


Fungsi turbin pada pabrik kelapa sawit sendiri adalah mengubah energi uap menjadi energi kinetis pada nosel, dan mengubahnya lagi menjadi energi mekanis pada sudu turbin terhadap poros turbin. Sebuah mesin penggerak seperti turbin uap pada pabrik kelapa sawit punya beberapa kelebihan yang mungkin tidak ditemukan di mesin lain, seperti dapat menghasilkan panas yang baik, mampu mengontrol putaran dengan efektif, bisa menyesuaikan panas dengan lingkungannya, dan uap yang tersisa bisa dipakai untuk ketel uap dan rebusan.

Cara kerja turbin uap pabrik kelapa sawit berbeda-beda sesuai pembagian jenisnya.Turbin uap dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa jenis, yaitu:

A Berdasarkan pembentukannya:

  1. Uap air/kabut air. Uapnya terbentuk di atas permukaan air akibat penurunan tekanan di atas permukaan air hingga tekanan penguapan berdasarkan temperature permukaan air
  2. Uap air/uap didih. Uap ini terbentuk akibat pendidihan air. Ada pula yang disebut uap panas lanjut, yaitu ketika uap jenuh dipanaskan terhadap tekanan tetap, sehingga uap menerima panas lanjut atau temperature naik

B. Berdasarkan jumlah tingkat tekanannya:

  1. Turbin uap tingkat tekanan tunggal. Beberapa tingkat tekanan kecepatan, biasanya dipakai untuk menggerakkan kompresor
  2. Turbin dresser rand. Hanya ada satu tingkatan, dibuat khusus kapasitas bertenaga kecil hingga lebih besar

C. Berdasarkan arah aliran uapnya:

  1. Turbin aksial yaitu uap akan mengalir kearah sejajar dan melewati sumbu turbin
  2. Turbin radial yaitu uap mengalir kearah tegak lurus melewati sudu turbin

D. Berdasarkan jumlah silinder:

  1. Turbin silinder tunggal
  2. Turbin silinder ganda
  3. Turbin silinder tiga
  4. Turbin multi silinder

E. Berdasarkan konstruksi poros:

  1. Turbin as tunggal dengan rotor yang dipasang terhadap porong yang sama dan dihubungkan ke generator tunggal
  2. Turbin multi aksial, yaitu turbin as rootr dipisahkan dari setiap silinder dan ditempatkan sejajar dengan yang lain

F. Berdasarkan prinsip kerja uap:

  1. Turbin aksi, yaitu energi potensial uap diubah menjadi energi kinetis hingga energi listrik
  2. Turbin reaksi aksial, yaitu ekspansi uap di antara sudu gerak terhadap setiap tingkat yang terjadi pada luas yang sama
  3. Turbin reaksi radial, yaitu tanpa sudu-sudu pengarah diam


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